Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Diversification of land plants: insights from a family-level phylogenetic analysis

Omar Fiz-Palacios12*, Harald Schneider3, Jochen Heinrichs4 and Vincent Savolainen15

Author Affiliations

1 Division of Ecology and Evolution, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot SL5 7PY, UK

2 Department of Systematic Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18 D, Uppsala 75236, Sweden

3 Department of Botany, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK

4 Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute of Plant Sciences, Georg-August University, 37073, Göttingen, Germany

5 Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond TW9 3DS, UK

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:341  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-341

Published: 21 November 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Taxa and GenBank accession numbers with new sequences generated for this study in bold. Families for which DNA data could not be obtained are indicated in italics.

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Additional file 2:

Chronogram of the unconstrained tree. Numbers after family name are species number considered for our analysis following Stevens [13] for angiosperms and gymnosperms, Crosby et al. [8] and Buck and Goffinet [9] for mosses, Smith et al. [11] for ferns and Stotler et al. [43] for liverworts. The x axis indicate time in million years. The placement of 11 families in which no molecular data could be collected are indicated; they were connected to node numbers as follows: 1 - Monocarpaceae, 2 - Sandeothallaceae, 3 - Chonecoleaceae, 4 - Grolleaceae, 5 - Trichotemnomaceae, 6 - Viridivelleraceae, 7 - Microtheliaceae, 8 - Sorapillaceae, 9 - Hapthantaceae, 10 - Balanophoraceae and 11 - Rafflesiaceae.

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Additional file 3:

Number of significant shift in net diversification rate (topology-based method of Moore et al. [20]) with indication of cool (grey) and warm (black) temperatures of the Phanerozoic [22]. Bold number columns correspond to periods of rate increases. Time unit is Mya (million years ago). For each lineage the bottom row (italics) corresponds to the constrained tree.

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Additional file 4:

LASER analysis for the constrained tree using a constant-rate birth-death model with no extinction (a = 0) against variable-rates models with 2 and 3 rates (r) and 1 or 2 time shifts given for best fitting model (ts; time unit is million years ago).

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Additional file 5:

Diversification rate shift retrieved from MEDUSA [24]. Numbers on the first column correspond to the net diversification rate from highest to lowest and are depicted on Figure 3. Non-angiosperms cases are highlighted in bold, followed by the name of the group they belong to in brackets. "r" are the estimates for net diversification rate, "e" are estimates for relative extinction rate, "ΔAIC" is the increase on the stepwise AIC procedure and "ΔAICc" is the increase when corrected for small sample size [24]. Results for the constrained tree are presented at the bottom.

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Additional file 6:

Minimum-age calibration points used in divergence time reconstructions [44-57] .

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