Our current best hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships of all Caenorhabditis in culture and convergent evolution of hermaphroditism. Depicted is result of the maximum likelihood bootstrap analysis. Numbers on branches show, respectively, the support values for 100 bootstrap repeats in the ML analysis in percent, the posterior probabilities from the Bayesian inference analysis (blue), and the support values for 2000 jackknife repeats in a weighted maximum parsimony analysis in percent. * Weighted maximum parsimony analysis favors a position of C. sp. 15 as the sister species of the Elegans group with 60% support. ** Bayesian inference favors C. sp. 20 to form the sister species of the Angaria and Drosophilae groups with a clade credibility value of 96, the lowest in this analysis. Three species (in red) reproduce as self-fertilizing hermaphrodites with rare males, whereas all other species (in blue) are gonochoristic with females and males at approximately equal proportions. Hermaphroditism evolved convergently in all three lineages.
Kiontke et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:339 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-339