Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Timing the origin of human malarias: the lemur puzzle

M Andreína Pacheco1, Fabia U Battistuzzi1, Randall E Junge2, Omar E Cornejo3, Cathy V Williams4, Irene Landau5, Lydia Rabetafika6, Georges Snounou7, Lisa Jones-Engel8 and Ananias A Escalante19*

Author Affiliations

1 Center for Evolutionary Medicine and Informatics, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA

2 St. Louis Zoo, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

3 Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA

4 Duke Lemur Center, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA

5 Parasitologie comparée et modèles expérimentaux, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

6 Département de Biologie Animale, Faculté des Sciences, Université D'Antananarivo, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar

7 Université Pierre & Marie Curie, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France

8 National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

9 School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:299  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-299

Published: 12 October 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Separate saturation plots for complete mitochondrial genome and each gene. Saturation plots for complete mitochondrial genome (top left), cox3 (top right), cox1 (bottom left), and cytb (bottom right). Green dots represent the observed data for transitions, blue dots for transversions; while the light green and light blue lines are smoothing connection fits for transitions and transversions respectively.

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Additional file 2:

Phylogenetic tree of lemur Plasmodium, including the partial sequences obtained from the Propithecus verrauxi isolate, based on mitochondrial genomes. In the Bayesian phylogenetic tree presented, the values above branches are posterior probabilities. The accession numbers of the sequences derived from the parasites found in lemurs and other species are provided in Table 5.

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Additional file 3:

Divergence times of major splits in the malarial tree. Divergence times of major splits in the malarial tree as estimated by MultiDivTime and BEAST. Point time estimates and 95% credibility intervals (CrIs) are shown in millions of years (Mya). Three calibration scenarios are shown with different minimum-maximum boundaries. The absolute maximum (ABSMAX) was set at 91 Mya (see Methods for more details). Refer to additional file 4 for node numbers.

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Additional file 4:

Node numbers for the malarial phylogeny including lemurs. MultiDivTime and BEAST node numbers for the lemur phylogeny.

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Additional file 5:

Timetree of major malarial splits using a conservative calibration. Divergence times in MultiDivTime and CrIs for major splits in the malarial phylogeny (MultiDivTime: filled bars; BEAST: empty bars). A single conservative calibration was used (6-8 Mya).

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Additional file 6:

Timetree of major malarial splits using an inclusive calibration. Divergence times in MultiDivTime and CrIs for major splits in the malarial phylogeny (MultiDivTime: filled bars; BEAST: empty bars). The calibration point used includes the maximum molecular time estimate for the Papio/Macaca divergence.

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Additional file 7:

Node numbers for the malarial phylogeny including gorilla species. Node numbers as used in Table 4. This phylogeny includes recently published gorilla species (see main text for details).

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