Figure 4.

Schematic presentation of the average divergence of the American clades from Siberian-Asian sister clades and their dispersal into the America. Horizontal bars indicate the coalescent age estimates (at the center) ± Standard errors for each haplogroup shown on the Y axis. The average divergence time and the average time of the peopling of America across the haplogroups are also superimposed. X axis shows the time in thousand years ago. The coalescent estimates were calculated by Rho (ρ) statistics and three different mutation rates (i) panel 'A': one base substitution (i.e. one mutation other than indel) in the coding region (577 - 16023) per 5, 140 years [58], (ii) panel 'B': calibrated mutation rate of Soares et al. [59] based on all synonymous substitutions, (iii) panel 'C': one synonymous transition per 6, 764 year [76]

Kumar et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:293   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-293
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