Schematic representation of mtDNA phylogenetic tree of Native American haplogroups C1, C4c, D1, and D4e1c and their immediate Siberian-Asian sister clades (C1a, C4a, C4b, D2 and D4e1a). Coalescent age calculated in thousand years (ky) as per the slow mutation rate of Mishmar et al.  and as per calibrated mutation rate of Soares et al.  are indicated in blue and red color respectively. The founder age wherever calculated are italicized. The geographical locations of the samples are identified with colors. For more details see complete phylogenetic reconstruction in additional file 2 (panels C-D) and additional file 3.
Kumar et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:293 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-293