Open Access Research article

Hybridization and massive mtDNA unidirectional introgression between the closely related Neotropical toads Rhinella marina and R. schneideri inferred from mtDNA and nuclear markers

Fernando Sequeira1*, Davidson Sodré2, Nuno Ferrand13, José AR Bernardi4, Iracilda Sampaio2, Horacio Schneider2 and Marcelo Vallinoto12

Author Affiliations

1 CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Campus Agrário de Vairão, Universidade do Porto, 4485-661 Vairão, Portugal

2 Universidade Federal do Pará, Campus de Bragança, Alameda Leandro Ribeiro s/n 68.600-000, Bragança, Pará, Brazil

3 Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal

4 Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia, IFPA- Campus de Bragança, Travessa Santos Dumont, s/n 68.600-000, Bragança, Pará, Brazil

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:264  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-264

Published: 22 September 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Sample size (N) and haplotypes (H) found in each sampled populations for all sequenced loci. Number between parentheses represents the number of individuals sharing the same haplotype. Population code is represented as in Figure 1.

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Additional file 2:

The posterior probability distributions of divergence time (t), theta (θ) and population migration rates (2Nm) estimates using Isolation-with-Migration model (IMa2) for five pairwise comparisons. (A) R. marina and R. schneideri [RM (LAB + RAB) × RS], and R. marina from left (LAB) and right (RAB) Amazon bank (LAB × RAB) using nuclear loci. Posterior probability of 2Nm from LAB to RAB is represented in the right vertical axis; (B) R. marina from left (LAB) and right (RAB) Amazon bank (LAB × RAB) using mtDNA cyt b gene; (C) R. marina from left (LAB) and right (RAB) Amazon bank + R. schneideri [LAB × (RAB + RS)] using mtDNA data; (D) R. marina and R. schneideri combining all markers and assuming that mtDNA from RAB belongs to R. schneideri [RM (LAB + RAB) × RS (RAB + RS)].

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Additional file 3:

Median-joining haplotype networks. (A) cyt b; (B) RPL9; (C) RPL3; and, (D) c-myc. The circle area of each haplotype, coded as a number (Additional file 1), is proportional to its frequency. White and black haplotypes are present in R. marina from Left Amazon river bank (LAB) and Right Amazon river bank (RAB), respectively, and gray haplotypes are present in R. schneideri. Median vectors are represented by red dots. Black dots represent inferred unsampled or extinct haplotypes.

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