The point substitution spectrum in CDEII. Relative rates of each point substitution (ri-> j) are counts of substitutions from i to j (ni-> j) given the total number of substitutions (∑ ni-> j), normalised for the base composition (pi, pAT = 0.95 in CDEII) and then rescaled so that totals add up to one: ri-> j = ((ni-> j/∑ ni-> j)/pi)/∑((ni-> j/∑ ni-> j)/pi). Error bars are 95% confidence intervals estimated from 1000 bootstrap replicates in which samples of 16 centromeres were sampled at random with replacement for each replicate using R. Open circles show the relative rates of spontaneous mutations observed genome-wide . The genome-wide estimates are from a total of 31 point substitutions, and the errors associated with these are therefore too large to show here. Total counts of each point substitution type (ni-> j) observed in CDEII are shown in the lower margin.
Bensasson BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:211 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-211