Open Access Research article

The long-term consequences of hybridization between the two Daphnia species, D. galeata and D. dentifera, in mature habitats

Seiji Ishida1, Akiko Takahashi2, Noe Matsushima2, Jun Yokoyama3, Wataru Makino2, Jotaro Urabe2 and Masakado Kawata2*

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of International Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan

2 Division of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Environmental Life Sciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan

3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University,1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata, Yamagata 990-8560, Japan

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:209  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-209

Published: 15 July 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

List of Daphnia specimens subjected to genetic and morphological analyses. List A shows information on the Japanese specimens used for genetic and morphological analyses, and list B shows information on the North American and European specimens used for genetic analyses.

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Additional file 2:

Frequency distribution of individuals of the scores of linear disciminators for mitochondrial D. dentifera (above panel) and D. galeata (below panel). Upper panel shows the frequency distribution of the specimens with D. dentifera mtDNA, and lower panel shows that of the specimens with D. galeata mtDNA.

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Additional file 3:

Relationship between body size (BL), relative crest length (CL1), and relative crest position (CL1). (A) A plot of the relationship between BL and CL2. (B) A plot of the relationship between BL and CL1. Red triangles and blue circles represent specimens with D. galeata mtDNA and those with D. dentifera mtDNA, respectively.

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Additional file 4:

An image of an agarose gel with the five main patterns (C1, C1+C2, C2, C2+B, and B) and the five minor patterns of specimens with D. galeata mtDNA in Hyg5, Fsm25, and Myg29, and specimens with D. dentifera mtDNA in Amr43 and Ngn9. The patterns were obtained by digesting the nuclear ITS-2 region with the RsaI restriction enzyme. The last lane is a size ladder with rungs from 300 bp to 1000 bp.

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Additional file 5:

Neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogram of the nuclear ITS-2. The four numbers on each branch indicate greater than 50% bootstrap support values for the branch as determined by NJ, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods, and a Bayesian clade credibility value of greater than 70%. Asterisks indicate values with less than 50% bootstrap support values, less than 70% Bayesian support values, or no support. We distinguished the color of the branch line based on the ITS-1 RFLP patterns (B, C1, and C2). We used a red line for the sequences of pattern B, a blue line for those of pattern C1, a gold line for those of pattern C2, red characters for the specimens with D. galeata mtDNA, and blue characters for those with D. dentifera mtDNA.

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