Open Access Research article

Reconstructing eight decades of genetic variation in an isolated Danish population of the large blue butterfly Maculinea arion

Line V Ugelvig12*, Per S Nielsen3, Jacobus J Boomsma1 and David R Nash1

Author Affiliations

1 Centre for Social Evolution, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark

2 Current address: IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology Austria), Am Campus 1, A-3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria

3 Freelance consultant, DK-2840 Holte, Denmark

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:201  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-201

Published: 11 July 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Table S1 - Microsatellite loci used in the study. Name, GenBank accession numbers, repeat motif and primer sequences (F: forward, R: reverse primer) are given for newly developed microsatellite loci (for previously developed loci see references below). Product size in base pairs and the optimal annealing temperature in degrees Celsius for M. arion are also provided. N = number of study populations; n = number of genotyped individuals; k = observed number of alleles; Ho = observed heterozygosity. The genotype error rate calculated per locus and the fraction of positive PCRs per locus is given separately for historic samples (1930-1975) and contemporary samples (2005-2007).

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Additional file 2:

Figure S1 - Presence of 'Ghost' alleles in the isolated Danish M. arion population. Allele frequencies per microsatellite locus found in each sampling year. Twelve alleles are only present in the historical samples (black arrows), whereas two alleles are unique to the contemporary (and 1975) samples (white arrows). Microsatellite loci name abbreviations: Ma = Macari, Mu = Macu.

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Additional file 3:

Table S2 - Detection of recent genetic bottlenecks. Empirical M-ratio values averaged over the ten microsatellite loci for each historic (1930-1957) and contemporary (2005, 2007) sampling year. An equilibrium population was simulated 1000 times for the parameter combination of Θ, Δg and ps, and P-values for the occurrence of a genetic bottleneck computed. Grey cells show evidence of a bottleneck (P< 0.05), whereas black cells show no evidence of a bottleneck.

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