A - C. Phylogenetic character mapping using the linear parsimony model with the first three canonical variates (CV1-CV3) based on female and male CHCs. Both sexes were analyzed together in the same CDF analysis to avoid scale effects but female and male canonical variates (CVs) were mapped separately onto the reconstructed phylogeny (see left and right trees). This phylogeny represents a most parsimonious tree (one of six trees) of the populations/species of the D. buzzatii cluster inferred from chromosomal inversions  and the period gene . One of the outgroup taxa, D. hydei, was removed prior to the character state reconstruction because no CHC data was available for this species. The other two species of the D. mojavensis cluster, D. arizonae and D. navojoa, were added to the analysis. Bootstrap values (shown above the nodes) were based on 1,000 replicates and 100 random additions. Only bootstrap values above 50% are shown. Bootstrap support for species of D. mojavensis cluster was based on Durando et al. .
Oliveira et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:179 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-179