Table 1

Taxonomy, distribution and life-history stategies of sycophagine fig wasps.

Genera

Host Ficus subgenus

(sub)section

Distribution

Oviposition timing

Ovipositor length

Gall size

Male morphology


Anidarnes

Urostigma Americana

Neotropical

Before pollination (group 1)

shorter than body length

Large

Winged

Eukoebelea

Urostigma Malvanthera

Australasian

After pollination (group 5)

equal or longer than body length

Small

Winged/Wingless

Conidarnes

Urostigma Conosycea

Oriental

Before & during pollination (groups 1 & 3)

shorter than body length

Large

Winged

Idarnes group incerta

Urostigma Americana

Neotropical

Before pollination (group 1)

shorter than body length

Large

Winged

Idarnes group flavicollis

Urostigma Americana

Neotropical

After pollination (group 2)

longer than body length

Small

Wingless

Idarnes group carme

Urostigma Americana

Neotropical

After pollination (group 4)

longer than body length

Small

Wingless

Apocryptophagus

Sycomorus&Urostigma Urostigma

Afrotropical + Oriental + Australasian

Before & After pollination (groups 1, 2, 4 & 5)

Shorter, equal to or longer than body length

Small

Wingless

Pseudidarnes

Urostigma Malvanthera

Australasian

Before pollination (group 1)

shorter than body length

Large

Winged

Sycophaga

Sycomorus

Afrotropical

During pollination (group 3)

shorter than body length

Small

Wingless


Cruaud et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:178   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-178

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