Open Access Research article

From Antarctica or Asia? New colonization scenario for Australian-New Guinean narrow mouth toads suggested from the findings on a mysterious genus Gastrophrynoides

Atsushi Kurabayashi1*, Masafumi Matsui2, Daicus M Belabut34, Hoi-Sen Yong3, Norhayati Ahmad45, Ahmad Sudin6, Mitsuru Kuramoto7, Amir Hamidy28 and Masayuki Sumida1

Author Affiliations

1 Institute for Amphibian Biology, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, 739-8526, Japan

2 Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan

3 Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia

4 Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Selangor, 43600, Malaysia

5 Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Selangor, 43600, Malaysia

6 Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, 88999, Malaysia

7 3-6-15 Hikarigaoka, Munakata, Fukuoka, 811-3403, Japan

8 Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Gedung Widyasatwaloka, Jalan Raya Jakarta Bogor km 46, Cibinong, West Java, Indonesia

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:175  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-175

Published: 21 June 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Phylogenetic trees from our data subsets and previous studies. Two ML trees from our data subsets (Aln-2 and 3) and three phylogenetic trees from previous studies.

Format: PDF Size: 143KB Download file

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Additional file 2:

Time trees from calibration A and D. Time trees from the calibration A and D are shown.

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Additional file 3:

Estimated ages from calculations A-F. Detailed estimated ages from the calibrations A-F are written in tabular form.

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Additional file 4:

Time trees from calibrations H and J. Time trees from the calibration H and J are shown.

Format: PDF Size: 96KB Download file

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Additional file 5:

Estimated ages from the calibrations G-J. Detailed estimated ages from the calibrations A-F are written in tabular form.

Format: XLS Size: 102KB Download file

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Additional file 6:

Information of sequence data and substitution models. Data partitions and fitted nucleotide substitution model for each partition in the alignment datasets are shown.

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Additional file 7:

Information of OTUs and sequence accession numbers. List of taxa used for this study and their sequence accession numbers.

Format: XLS Size: 91KB Download file

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Additional file 8:

Alignment datasets. All alignment datasets used (Aln-1, 2, 2 d, 3, and 3 d) are provided in nexus format.

Format: TXT Size: 1.3MB Download file

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