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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Mitochondrial evidence for multiple radiations in the evolutionary history of small apes

Van Ngoc Thinh1*, Alan R Mootnick2, Thomas Geissmann3, Ming Li4, Thomas Ziegler5, Muhammad Agil6, Pierre Moisson7, Tilo Nadler8, Lutz Walter19 and Christian Roos19*

Author Affiliations

1 Primate Genetics Laboratory, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany

2 Gibbon Conservation Center, PO Box 800249, Santa Clarita, CA 91380, USA

3 Anthropological Institute, University Zurich-Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland

4 Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, PR China

5 Siberut Conservation Programme, Reproductive Biology Unit, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany

6 Department of Clinic, Reproduction and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Agatis, Kampus IPB Darmaga, 16680 Bogor, Indonesia

7 Parc Zoologique et Botanique de Mulhouse, 51, rue du Jardin Zoologique, 68100 Mulhouse, France

8 Frankfurt Zoological Society, Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Cuc Phuong National Park, Nho Quan District, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam

9 Gene Bank of Primates, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2010, 10:74  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-74

Published: 12 March 2010

Abstract

Background

Gibbons or small apes inhabit tropical and subtropical rain forests in Southeast Asia and adjacent regions, and are, next to great apes, our closest living relatives. With up to 16 species, gibbons form the most diverse group of living hominoids, but the number of taxa, their phylogenetic relationships and their phylogeography is controversial. To further the discussion of these issues we analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 85 individuals representing all gibbon species, including most subspecies.

Results

Based on phylogenetic tree reconstructions, several monophyletic clades were detected, corresponding to genera, species and subspecies. A significantly supported branching pattern was obtained for members of the genus Nomascus but not for the genus Hylobates. The phylogenetic relationships among the four genera were also not well resolved. Nevertheless, the new data permitted the estimation of divergence ages for all taxa for the first time and showed that most lineages emerged during four short time periods. In the first, between ~6.7 and ~8.3 mya, the four gibbon genera diverged from each other. In the second (~3.0 - ~3.9 mya) and in the third period (~1.3 - ~1.8 mya), Hylobates and Hoolock differentiated. Finally, between ~0.5 and ~1.1 mya, Hylobates lar diverged into subspecies. In contrast, differentiation of Nomascus into species and subspecies was a continuous and prolonged process lasting from ~4.2 until ~0.4 mya.

Conclusions

Although relationships among gibbon taxa on various levels remain unresolved, the present study provides a more complete view of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the hylobatid family, and a more solid genetic basis for the taxonomic classification of the surviving taxa. We also show that mtDNA constitutes a useful marker for the accurate identification of individual gibbons, a tool which is urgently required to locate hunting hotspots and select individuals for captive breeding programs. Further studies including nuclear sequence data are necessary to completely understand the phylogeny and phylogeography of gibbons.