Cold-shock experiment. (A) Induction rate (IR) and failure rate (FR) of the Hiratsuka (HIR) and Fukaura (FUK) populations of Z. maha treated for 15 days at 4°C. Higher IRs in females and in the Hiratsuka population are observed. FR is also higher in the Hiratsuka population. The IR difference in male between the Hiratsuka and Fukaura population is conspicuous. (B) Dose-dependent responses of the IR (pink, orange, and blue lines) and FR (black line) of the Hiratsuka population. No modification was able to be clearly detected in 0-d and 5-d cold-shock treatments. ANCOVA indicated statistical difference in sexes (p < 0.001). (C-L) Various wing color-patterns of the cold-shock treated individuals for 10 days (C-F), 15 days (G-J), and 20 days (K, L). (M) Modification-type profiles of the cold-shock-treated Z. maha individuals. Result of the Fukaura individuals (FUK) for the 15 day treatment is also shown, but all other data were obtained from the Hiratsuka individuals (HIR). For the color assignment, see Fig. 2S. Note the step-wise increase of the outward type and decrease of the inward type, and almost constant proportion of the reduction type in male. (N) Principal component analysis, indicating relationships among the four modification types and between sexes.
Otaki et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2010 10:252 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-252