Early and late Cyclopamine treatments disrupt ventral PA development. (A-H) 96 hpf Alcian blue-stained cartilage. Wild type treated with ethanol (EtOH) vehicle (4-48 hpf) (A), untreated con/disp1 mutant (B) and wild type treated with 100 μM Cya at stages between 4-72 hpf (C-H). (B,C) 4-8 hpf treatment causes reduced jaw cartilage and outgrowth defects (C), similar to con/disp1 mutant (B), while hyoid and posterior arch cartilages are unaffected (C). (D-F) 8-32 hpf treatments had little effect on PA cartilage development, with occasional jaw cartilage reductions in 8-12 hpf treatment (D). (G) 32-48 hpf treatment eliminated most cb cartilages, without reducing anterior arch cartilage. (H) Treatments after 48 hpf have no effect on PA cartilage development. (I) Mandibular arch patterning defects and posterior arch chondrogenesis defects are summarized for each treatment (n = 20 embryos per treatment). Scale bar: 50 μM.
Schwend and Ahlgren BMC Developmental Biology 2009 9:59 doi:10.1186/1471-213X-9-59