Loss of S1P1R causes altered cardiac morphology at E12.5. Saggital heart sections were immunostained for sarcomeric α-actin (green) and counterstained with propidium iodide (red) to mark the nuclei. (A, B, C) E12.5 S1P1R+/+ heart exhibits normal morphology. (D, E, F) E12.5 S1P1R-/- heart demonstrates disrupted morphology, including rounded apex, reduced ventricular tissue and disorganized compact layer and trabeculae. (A, D) 100X, (B, E) 200X, and (C, F) 400X magnification. Scale Bar = 200 μm. V = ventricle, A = atrium, * = AV canal cushion.
Poulsen et al. BMC Developmental Biology 2011 11:37 doi:10.1186/1471-213X-11-37