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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Pre-gastrula expression of zebrafish extraembryonic genes

Sung-Kook Hong1, Carly S Levin1, Jamie L Brown1, Haiyan Wan1, Brad T Sherman2, Da Wei Huang2, Richard A Lempicki2 and Benjamin Feldman1*

Author Affiliations

1 Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

2 Laboratory of Immunopathogenesis and Bioinformatics, Clinical Services Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA

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BMC Developmental Biology 2010, 10:42  doi:10.1186/1471-213X-10-42

Published: 27 April 2010

Abstract

Background

Many species form extraembryonic tissues during embryogenesis, such as the placenta of humans and other viviparous mammals. Extraembryonic tissues have various roles in protecting, nourishing and patterning embryos. Prior to gastrulation in zebrafish, the yolk syncytial layer - an extraembryonic nuclear syncytium - produces signals that induce mesoderm and endoderm formation. Mesoderm and endoderm precursor cells are situated in the embryonic margin, an external ring of cells along the embryo-yolk interface. The yolk syncytial layer initially forms below the margin, in a domain called the external yolk syncytial layer (E-YSL).

Results

We hypothesize that key components of the yolk syncytial layer's mesoderm and endoderm inducing activity are expressed as mRNAs in the E-YSL. To identify genes expressed in the E-YSL, we used microarrays to compare the transcription profiles of intact pre-gastrula embryos with pre-gastrula embryonic cells that we had separated from the yolk and yolk syncytial layer. This identified a cohort of genes with enriched expression in intact embryos. Here we describe our whole mount in situ hybridization analysis of sixty-eight of them. This includes ten genes with E-YSL expression (camsap1l1, gata3, znf503, hnf1ba, slc26a1, slc40a1, gata6, gpr137bb, otop1 and cebpa), four genes with expression in the enveloping layer (EVL), a superficial epithelium that protects the embryo (zgc:136817, zgc:152778, slc14a2 and elovl6l), three EVL genes whose expression is transiently confined to the animal pole (elovl6l, zgc:136359 and clica), and six genes with transient maternal expression (mtf1, wu:fj59f04, mospd2, rftn2, arrdc1a and pho). We also assessed the requirement of Nodal signaling for the expression of selected genes in the E-YSL, EVL and margin. Margin expression was Nodal dependent for all genes we tested, including the concentrated margin expression of an EVL gene: zgc:110712. All other instances of EVL and E-YSL expression that we tested were Nodal independent.

Conclusion

We have devised an effective strategy for enriching and identifying genes expressed in the E-YSL of pre-gastrula embryos. To our surprise, maternal genes and genes expressed in the EVL were also enriched by this strategy. A number of these genes are promising candidates for future functional studies on early embryonic patterning.