Effects of LPS and LTA on the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. MSCs were cultured in osteogenesis-induction medium and exposed to toxin for 3 days or for the whole incubation period. According to ALP activity and calcium deposition assays performed on Day 10 (LPS) or 14 (LTA), short-term LPS challenge did not affect the osteogenic differentiation (A and B), but prolonged challenge to 1 and 10 μg/mL upregulated ALP activity and calcium deposition. Neither short-term nor prolonged LTA challenge affected the osteogenic differentiation (C and D). The data are from three independent experiments and expressed as mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01 versus control.
Mo et al. BMC Cell Biology 2008 9:52 doi:10.1186/1471-2121-9-52