Fluorescent microscopy probes for oxidative stress, GSH and total thiols in RAW 264.7 cells. Panel A: Combined generation of ROS and RNOS were monitored using 20 μM carDCFH-DA; Panel B: Intracellular GSH levels were examined using 20 μM CMAC; Panel C: Levels of non-protein cellular thiols were monitored using 20 μM CMF-DA under a fluorescent microscope. Macrophages were treated with CEES (500 μM) and/or LPS (50 ng/mL) and incubated in the absence of NAC (top row in each panel) or in the presence of 10 mM NAC for 12 h.
Paromov et al. BMC Cell Biology 2008 9:33 doi:10.1186/1471-2121-9-33