Pulse-driven transmembrane potential. Voltages across the external membrane of a human lymphocyte with a radius of 5.0 μm and an intracellular membrane-bound structure with a radius of 0.5 μm, after a pulsed field step from 0 to 8 MV/m in growth medium, calculated from a simple dielectric shell model of the cell [7,12], showing that the potential across the external membrane can be expected to reach 1 V in less than 2 ns. Electrical parameters are derived from values in . The membranes of intracellular vesicles or organelles like mitochondria will charge more quickly because the capacitance of these smaller structures is less than that of the cell membrane.
Vernier et al. BMC Cell Biology 2006 7:37 doi:10.1186/1471-2121-7-37