Figure 1.

Cell cycle responses of human diploid fibroblast (HDF) cells. (A) Response to DNA damage. HDF cells were exposed to 0, 10 or 20 J/m2 ultraviolet light and entry into S phase was assayed by BrdU incorporation. For each bar n ≥ 300 cells. (B) Recovery from nocodazole arrest. HDF cells were arrested in mitosis by double thymidine block followed by nocodazole (left) and released for 30 min. (center and right). DNA, blue; α-tubulin, green; γ-tubulin, red. (C) Example of binucleate cells created by cytochalasin-induced cytokinesis failure. DNA, blue. (D) Cell cycle progression of HDF cells in response to cytokinesis failure induced with 2 μM cytochalasin. Cells were assayed for BrdU incorporation at the indicated times after removal of cytochalasin. "control" cells were not treated with cytochalasin; "cytochalasin (mononucleate)" cells were treated, but completed cytokinesis, and "cytochalasin (binucleate)" cells were treated and failed to divide in cytokinesis. For each bar n ≥ 300 cells. (E) Cell cycle progression of HDF cells in response to cytokinesis failure induced with 12.5 μM blebbistatin. Cells were assayed for BrdU incorporation at the indicated times after removal of blebbistatin. "control" cells were not treated with blebbistatin; "blebbistatin (mononucleate)" cells were treated, but completed cytokinesis, and "blebbistatin (binucleate)" cells were treated and failed to divide in cytokinesis. For each bar n ≥ 300 cells. (F) Cell cycle progression in response to the presence of extra centrosomes. Image shows the product of fusion between a G1 cell and a G1 cytoplast. 24 h after fusion this cell has four centrosomes, indicating that it has undergone centrosome duplication, and has incorporated BrdU, indicating that it has entered S phase. DNA, blue; BrdU, green; pericentrin, red. Punctate blue staining is due to cell surface marker used to identify fusion products [12]. Scale bars represent 10 μm.

Wong and Stearns BMC Cell Biology 2005 6:6   doi:10.1186/1471-2121-6-6
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