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Open Access Research article

Multisite phosphorylation of Pin1-associated mitotic phosphoproteins revealed by monoclonal antibodies MPM-2 and CC-3

Alexandra L Albert, Sébastien B Lavoie and Michel Vincent*

Author Affiliations

CREFSIP et Département de médecine, Pavillon Charles-Eugène-Marchand, Université Laval, Québec, Qc, Canada, G1K 7P4

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BMC Cell Biology 2004, 5:22  doi:10.1186/1471-2121-5-22

Published: 1 June 2004

Abstract

Background

The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 recently revealed itself as a new player in the regulation of protein function by phosphorylation. Pin1 isomerizes the peptide bond of specific phosphorylated serine or threonine residues preceding proline in several proteins involved in various cellular events including mitosis, transcription, differentiation and DNA damage response. Many Pin1 substrates are antigens of the phosphodependent monoclonal antibody MPM-2, which reacts with a subset of proteins phosphorylated at the G2/M transition.

Results

As MPM-2 is not a general marker of mitotic phosphoproteins, and as most mitotic substrates are phosphorylated more than once, we used a different phosphodependent antibody, mAb CC-3, to identify additional mitotic phosphoproteins and eventual Pin1 substrates by combining affinity purification, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and immunoblotting. Most CC-3-reactive phosphoproteins appeared to be known or novel MPM-2 antigens and included the RNA-binding protein p54nrb/nmt55, the spliceosomal protein SAP155, the Ki-67 antigen, MAP-1B, DNA topoisomerases II α and β, the elongation factor hSpt5 and the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. The CC-3 mitotic antigens were also shown to be Pin1 targets. The fine CC-3- and MPM-2-epitope mapping of the RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain confirmed that the epitopes were different and could be generated in vitro by distinct kinases. Finally, the post-mitotic dephosphorylation of both CC-3 and MPM-2 antigens was prevented when cellular Pin1 activity was blocked by the selective inhibitor juglone.

Conclusion

These observations indicate that the mitotic phosphoproteins associated with Pin1 are phosphorylated on multiple sites, suggesting combinatorial regulation of substrate recognition and isomerization.