The topological morphology (A-B) and the imaging of the third dimension (C) of endothelial cell membrane detected using AFM. B and C were zoomed in from the region a in A. The areas b and c in B show the peripheral and central regions in the cell, where the force-distance curves were detected through the indentation force along the alteration of the distance between the tip and the studied location. Scale bar in A = 20μm; Scale bar in B-C = 10μm. The histogram (D) representing the morphologic characteristic was obtained from the scan of the cellular surface (B and C) with AFM. The force-distance curve (E) was obtained with the tip on the cell treated with continuous low glucose for seven days and presented the relative elasticity of the cell surface (approach curve, 2→3), with a noticeable adhesion force (retraction curve, 3→4).
Chen et al. BMC Cell Biology 2013 14:22 doi:10.1186/1471-2121-14-22