Figure 3.

Cytokine release from purified microglial cells stimulated with glycated albumin (GA) for 6, 12, or 24 h. (A) The release of TNF-α from retinal microglial cells cultured with 0, 10, 50, 100, or 250 μg/mL GA for various time periods. TNF-α in the culture supernatants began to increase at 6 h after exposure to 10 μg/mL GA and peaked after exposure to 250 μg/mL GA. (B) The release of IL-1β from retinal microglial cells cultured with 0, 10, 50, 100, or 250 μg/mL GA for various time periods. IL-1β in the culture supernatants began to increase at 12 h after exposure to 10 μg/mL GA and peaked after exposure to 250 μg/mL GA. The results are shown as means ± SD of three individual experiments. One-way ANOVA was performed, followed by post-hoc analysis. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.001; ***, P < 0.0001.

Liu et al. BMC Cell Biology 2011 12:5   doi:10.1186/1471-2121-12-5
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