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Open Access Highly Accessed Methodology article

Intracellular localization and interaction of mRNA binding proteins as detected by FRET

Pamela S David Gerecht1, Molly A Taylor2 and J David Port13*

Author Affiliations

1 Departments of Medicine/Cardiology and Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 12700 East 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA

2 Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, 2103 Cornell Road, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA

3 University of Colorado School of Medicine Division of Cardiology, B139 12700 East 19th Avenue, Rm 8001 Aurora, CO 80045, USA

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BMC Cell Biology 2010, 11:69  doi:10.1186/1471-2121-11-69

Published: 15 September 2010

Abstract

Background

A number of RNA binding proteins (BPs) bind to A+U rich elements (AREs), commonly present within 3'UTRs of highly regulated RNAs. Individual RNA-BPs proteins can modulate RNA stability, RNA localization, and/or translational efficiency. Although biochemical studies have demonstrated selectivity of ARE-BPs for individual RNAs, less certain is the in vivo composition of RNA-BP multiprotein complexes and how their composition is affected by signaling events and intracellular localization. Using FRET, we previously demonstrated that two ARE-BPs, HuR and AUF1, form stable homomeric and heteromeric associations in the nucleus and cytoplasm. In the current study, we use immuno-FRET of endogenous proteins to examine the intracellular localization and interactions of HuR and AUF1 as well as KSRP, TIA-1, and Hedls. These results were compared to those obtained with their exogenously expressed, fluorescently labeled counterparts.

Results

All ARE-BPs examined were found to colocalize and to form stable associations with selected other RNA-BPs in one or more cellular locations variably including the nucleus, cytoplasm (in general), or in stress granules or P bodies. Interestingly, FRET based interaction of the translational suppressor, TIA-1, and the decapping protein, Hedls, was found to occur at the interface of stress granules and P bodies, dynamic sites of intracellular RNA storage and/or turnover. To explore the physical interactions of RNA-BPs with ARE containing RNAs, in vitro transcribed Cy3-labeled RNA was transfected into cells. Interestingly, Cy3-RNA was found to coalesce in P body like punctate structures and, by FRET, was found to interact with the RNA decapping proteins, Hedls and Dcp1.

Conclusions

Biochemical methodologies, such as co-immunoprecipitation, and cell biological approaches such as standard confocal microscopy are useful in demonstrating the possibility of proteins and/or proteins and RNAs interacting. However, as demonstrated herein, colocalization of proteins and proteins and RNA is not always indicative of interaction. To this point, using FRET and immuno-FRET, we have demonstrated that RNA-BPs can visually colocalize without producing a FRET signal. In contrast, proteins that appear to be delimited to one or another intracellular compartment can be shown to interact when those compartments are juxtaposed.