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Open Access Open Badges Research article

Application of protein structure alignments to iterated hidden Markov model protocols for structure prediction

Eric D Scheeff13* and Philip E Bourne12

Author Affiliations

1 San Diego Supercomputer Center, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0537, USA

2 Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093, USA

3 Present address: Razavi-Newman Center for Bioinformatics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Rd., La Jolla, CA 92037, USA

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BMC Bioinformatics 2006, 7:410  doi:10.1186/1471-2105-7-410

Published: 14 September 2006



One of the most powerful methods for the prediction of protein structure from sequence information alone is the iterative construction of profile-type models. Because profiles are built from sequence alignments, the sequences included in the alignment and the method used to align them will be important to the sensitivity of the resulting profile. The inclusion of highly diverse sequences will presumably produce a more powerful profile, but distantly related sequences can be difficult to align accurately using only sequence information. Therefore, it would be expected that the use of protein structure alignments to improve the selection and alignment of diverse sequence homologs might yield improved profiles. However, the actual utility of such an approach has remained unclear.


We explored several iterative protocols for the generation of profile hidden Markov models. These protocols were tailored to allow the inclusion of protein structure alignments in the process, and were used for large-scale creation and benchmarking of structure alignment-enhanced models. We found that models using structure alignments did not provide an overall improvement over sequence-only models for superfamily-level structure predictions. However, the results also revealed that the structure alignment-enhanced models were complimentary to the sequence-only models, particularly at the edge of the "twilight zone". When the two sets of models were combined, they provided improved results over sequence-only models alone. In addition, we found that the beneficial effects of the structure alignment-enhanced models could not be realized if the structure-based alignments were replaced with sequence-based alignments. Our experiments with different iterative protocols for sequence-only models also suggested that simple protocol modifications were unable to yield equivalent improvements to those provided by the structure alignment-enhanced models. Finally, we found that models using structure alignments provided fold-level structure assignments that were superior to those produced by sequence-only models.


When attempting to predict the structure of remote homologs, we advocate a combined approach in which both traditional models and models incorporating structure alignments are used.