Figure 1.

A pedigree of 11 members. (a) A pedigree of 11 members coupled with genotype data. The paternal haplotype of an individual is listed left while its maternal haplotype is listed right, even though the haplotype information is not available from genotyping. For example, the paternal and maternal haplotypes of individual n6 are 0100 and 1110, respectively; the genotype of n6, however, is specified as {0, 1}{1, 1}{0, 1}{0, 0}. Circles represent females and boxes represent males. Children are listed below their parents with line connections. For example, the couple n7 and n8 have two children n9 and n10. There is a mating loop in the pedigree due to the common ancestor n2 of the couple n5 and n9. (b) A pedigree graph with a spanning tree. Tree edges are solid lines and non-tree edges are dotted lines. The genotype data are represented as vectors of g-constant. There is a local cycle of length 4 due to the couple n7 and n8 and their children n9 and n10. There is a global cycle of length 6 due to the mating loop. (c) There are four locus graphs for the different loci. Edges in locus forests are depicted as solid lines. Nodes with thick borders are predetermined.

Lai et al. BMC Bioinformatics 2012 13(Suppl 17):S19   doi:10.1186/1471-2105-13-S17-S19