Table 1

Examples of effects of gut microbes on drugs

CID

Drug

Body Site

Microbial effects

NCBI PMID


64982

Baicalin [Potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and liver tonic]

Gut

Gut microbes hydrolyze baicalin and enhance its absorption. Absence of gut microbiota resulted in lower levels of baicalin in plasma following oral administration [8].

11197087


2724385

Digoxin [Cardiac glycoside]

Gut

Eubacterium lentum is responsible for the difference in metabolite concentration of digoxin between North Americans and Southern Indians [9]

2759492


1794427

Chlorogenic acid [Antioxidant]

Gut

Variation in gut microbiome alters chlorogenic acid metabolism [10].

12771329


1983

Acetaminophen [Analgesic and antipyretic]

Gut

Acetaminophen toxicity is associated with elevated levels of p-cresol produced by some bacterial communities [4].

19667173


9064

(+)- catechin and (-)-epichatechins [Anti-oxidants]

Gut

In germ-free rats, (+)-catechins and (-)-epicatechins resulted in increase in the levels of liver CYP450 2C11, and (+) catechins caused elevation in the specific activity of liver UGT-Chloramphenicol [11].

12659723


5734

Zonisamide [Anticonvulsant]

Gut

Gut microbiota reduce zonisamide into 2-sulfomoyacetylphenol. Levels of 2-sulfomoyacetylphenol reportedly increased upon re-inoculation of germ-free rats with gut microbiota [12]

9231340


Aziz et al. BMC Bioinformatics 2011 12(Suppl 7):A10   doi:10.1186/1471-2105-12-S7-A10

Open Data