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Open Access Research article

A single amino acid determines preference between phospholipids and reveals length restriction for activation ofthe S1P4 receptor

Gill Holdsworth1, Daniel A Osborne2, TrucChi Thi Pham2, James I Fells2, Gillian Hutchinson1, Graeme Milligan3 and Abby L Parrill2*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of NCE Biology, Celltech R&D Ltd., 216 Bath Road, Slough, Berks., SL1 4EN, U.K

2 Department of Chemistry and Computational Research on Materials Institute, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152, USA

3 Molecular Pharmacology Group, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK

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BMC Biochemistry 2004, 5:12  doi:10.1186/1471-2091-5-12

Published: 6 August 2004

Abstract

Background

Sphingosine-1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are ligands for two related families of G protein-coupled receptors, the S1P and LPA receptors, respectively. The lysophospholipid ligands of these receptors are structurally similar, however recognition of these lipids by these receptors is highly selective. A single residue present within the third transmembrane domain (TM) of S1P receptors is thought to determine ligand selectivity; replacement of the naturally occurring glutamic acid with glutamine (present at this position in the LPA receptors) has previously been shown to be sufficient to change the specificity of S1P1 from S1P to 18:1 LPA.

Results

We tested whether mutation of this "ligand selectivity" residue to glutamine could confer LPA-responsiveness to the related S1P receptor, S1P4. This mutation severely affected the response of S1P4 to S1P in a [35S]GTPĪ³S binding assay, and imparted sensitivity to LPA species in the order 14:0 LPA > 16:0 LPA > 18:1 LPA. These results indicate a length restriction for activation of this receptor and demonstrate the utility of using LPA-responsive S1P receptor mutants to probe binding pocket length using readily available LPA species. Computational modelling of the interactions between these ligands and both wild type and mutant S1P4 receptors showed excellent agreement with experimental data, therefore confirming the fundamental role of this residue in ligand recognition by S1P receptors.

Conclusions

Glutamic acid in the third transmembrane domain of the S1P receptors is a general selectivity switch regulating response to S1P over the closely related phospholipids, LPA. Mutation of this residue to glutamine confers LPA responsiveness with preference for short-chain species. The preference for short-chain LPA species indicates a length restriction different from the closely related S1P1 receptor.