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Open Access Research article

Plasmodium falciparum UvrD activities are downregulated by DNA-interacting compounds and its dsRNA inhibits malaria parasite growth

Mohammed Tarique, Farha Tabassum, Moaz Ahmad, Renu Tuteja* and Malaria Group

Author Affiliations

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, P. O. Box 10504, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India

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BMC Biochemistry 2014, 15:9  doi:10.1186/1471-2091-15-9

Published: 3 April 2014

Abstract

Background

Human malaria parasite infection and its control is a global challenge which is responsible for ~0.65 million deaths every year globally. The emergence of drug resistant malaria parasite is another challenge to fight with malaria. Enormous efforts are being made to identify suitable drug targets in order to develop newer classes of drug. Helicases play crucial roles in DNA metabolism and have been proposed as therapeutic targets for cancer therapy as well as viral and parasitic infections. Genome wide analysis revealed that Plasmodium falciparum possesses UvrD helicase, which is absent in the human host.

Results

Recently the biochemical characterization of P. falciparum UvrD helicase revealed that N-terminal UvrD (PfUDN) hydrolyses ATP, translocates in 3’ to 5’ direction and interacts with MLH to modulate each other’s activity. In this follow up study, further characterization of P. falciparum UvrD helicase is presented. Here, we screened the effect of various DNA interacting compounds on the ATPase and helicase activity of PfUDN. This study resulted into the identification of daunorubicin (daunomycin), netropsin, nogalamycin, and ethidium bromide as the potential inhibitor molecules for the biochemical activities of PfUDN with IC50 values ranging from ~3.0 to ~5.0 μM. Interestingly etoposide did not inhibit the ATPase activity but considerable inhibition of unwinding activity was observed at 20 μM. Further study for analyzing the importance of PfUvrD enzyme in parasite growth revealed that PfUvrD is crucial/important for its growth ex-vivo.

Conclusions

As PfUvrD is absent in human hence on the basis of this study we propose PfUvrD as suitable drug target to control malaria. Some of the PfUvrD inhibitors identified in the present study can be utilized to further design novel and specific inhibitor molecules.

Keywords:
ATPase; Helicase; Malaria parasite; UvrD; DNA unwinding; DNA interacting agents