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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Possibilities and pitfalls in quantifying the extent of cysteine sulfenic acid modification of specific proteins within complex biofluids

Douglas S Rehder and Chad R Borges*

Author Affiliations

Molecular Biomarkers, The Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA

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BMC Biochemistry 2010, 11:25  doi:10.1186/1471-2091-11-25

Published: 1 July 2010

Abstract

Background

Cysteine sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH) plays important roles in the redox regulation of numerous proteins. As a relatively unstable posttranslational protein modification it is difficult to quantify the degree to which any particular protein is modified by Cys-SOH within a complex biological environment. The goal of these studies was to move a step beyond detection and into the relative quantification of Cys-SOH within specific proteins found in a complex biological setting--namely, human plasma.

Results

This report describes the possibilities and limitations of performing such analyses based on the use of thionitrobenzoic acid and dimedone-based probes which are commonly employed to trap Cys-SOH. Results obtained by electrospray ionization-based mass spectrometric immunoassay reveal the optimal type of probe for such analyses as well as the reproducible relative quantification of Cys-SOH within albumin and transthyretin extracted from human plasma--the latter as a protein previously unknown to be modified by Cys-SOH.

Conclusions

The relative quantification of Cys-SOH within specific proteins in a complex biological setting can be accomplished, but several analytical precautions related to trapping, detecting, and quantifying Cys-SOH must be taken into account prior to pursuing its study in such matrices.