Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from BMC Biochemistry and BioMed Central.

Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Cloning and characterization of Escherichia coli DUF299: a bifunctional ADP-dependent kinase - Pi-dependent pyrophosphorylase from bacteria

Jim N Burnell

Author Affiliations

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia

BMC Biochemistry 2010, 11:1  doi:10.1186/1471-2091-11-1

Published: 3 January 2010



Phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase (PEPS; EC catalyzes the synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate from pyruvate in Escherichia coli when cells are grown on a three carbon source. It also catalyses the anabolic conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in gluconeogenesis. A bioinformatics search conducted following the successful cloning and expression of maize leaf pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase regulatory protein (PDRP) revealed the presence of PDRP homologs in more than 300 bacterial species; the PDRP homolog was identified as DUF299.


This paper describes the cloning and expression of both PEPS and DUF299 from E. coli and establishes that E. coli DUF299 catalyzes both the ADP-dependent inactivation and the Pi-dependent activation of PEPS.


This paper represents the first report of a bifunctional regulatory enzyme catalysing an ADP-dependent phosphorylation and a Pi-dependent pyrophosphorylation reaction in bacteria.